Seeking self-esteem may not be a good idea after all.
to a U-M study of more than 600 college freshmen, published in the
September issue of the Journal of Social Issues, trying to increase
or preserve self-esteemáeven by getting good gradesácarries high
mental and physical costs. These costs include increased levels
of interpersonal stress and conflict, and elevated levels of drug
and alcohol use.
Jennifer Crocker, a psychologist at the Institute for Social Research
(ISR), conducted the study. The work is part of a series of studies
Crocker has been conducting that reveal how the pursuit of self-esteem,
a central preoccupation in U.S. society, can undermine rather than
support success and personal health. Her work is funded by the National
Institute of Mental Health.
Despite the widespread belief in the value of self-esteem in this
culture, a growing body of research indicates that pursuing self-esteem
has substantial costs, making it more difficult for people to perform
well and to relinquish competitiveness and self-absorption to relate
well to others. "The pursuit of self-esteem is ultimately self-destructive
and may be costly to others as well," Crocker says.
In her study of college freshmen, Crocker found that these costs
also included increased conflicts with romantic partners and friends,
increased academic problems, higher drug and alcohol use, and more
symptoms of disordered eating.
Seven common foundations
of self-esteem explored in ISR study
1. My self-esteem depends on whether or not I follow
my moral and ethical principles. (Virtue)
2. I feel worthwhile when I have God’s love. (Religious
3. It’s important to my self-worth to feel loved
by my family. (Family support)
4. I care what other people think of me. (Approval of
5. Doing better than others gives me a sense of self-respect.
6. I feel better about myself when I know I’m
doing well academically. (Academic
7. My sense of self-worth suffers whenever I think I
don’t look good. (Appearance)
Crocker and colleagues asked students to fill out a questionnaire
at the start of the fall term to assess their overall level of self-esteem
and their endorsement of seven common foundations of self-esteem,
some external and others internal. These include: appearance, competition,
the approval of others, family support, virtue, religious faith
and academic competence.
Overall, she found that most of the studentsálike most Americansáhave
high levels of self-esteem. Only 4 percent of students said none
of the seven bases of self-esteem were important to them, suggesting
how common it is to base self-esteem on accomplishments, behaviors
and qualities other than one's intrinsic value as a person.
More than 80 percent of students surveyed at the start of the fall
term said academic competence was important to their feelings of
self-worth, while 77 percent cited their families' support and pride
in them, 66 percent cited doing better than others and 65 percent
(70 percent of women) said their sense of self-worth was influenced
by how they look. About 66 percent said the feeling of being a good
person was important, while 40 percent cited religious faith and
37 percent cited the approval of other people.
At the end of the fall and spring terms, the researchers followed
up to assess how the students were doing socially and academically,
and to measure their psychological health, including their levels
of hostility and anger, and their use of drugs and alcohol. Crocker
controlled for the students' levels of self-esteem, and for gender,
ethnicity and parental income. She found that students who based
their self-worth on external sources such as appearance, doing better
than others or the approval of other people showed more stress and
anger and were more likely to have higher levels of drug and alcohol
use and more symptoms of disordered eating.
She also found that college students who based their self-worth
on their academic performance reported more conflicts with professors
and teaching assistants than students who scored relatively low
in their endorsement of good grades as a source of self-worth. Although
these students were highly motivated and reported studying more
hours each week, they did not receive higher grades, Crocker found.
"My research shows that when you make your self-esteem contingent
on something other than your basic value as a human being, it's
not a good thing, even if the source of your self-esteem is something
as praise-worthy as getting good grades," she says.