The University of Michigan
March 14, 1994
It is the policy of the University of Michigan to maintain an academic and work environment free of sexual harassment for students, faculty, and staff. Sexual harassment is contrary to the standards of the University community. It diminishes individual dignity and impedes equal employment and educational opportunities and equal access to freedom of academic inquiry. Sexual harassment is a barrier to fulfilling the Universitys scholarly, research, educational, and service missions. It will not be tolerated at the University of Michigan.
Sexual harassment violates the Universitys long-standing policy against discrimination on the basis of sex. Sexual harassment is also illegal. It is prohibited in the employment context by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, in the education context by Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 and, in both employment and education contexts, by Michigans Elliot-Larsen Civil Rights Act, adopted in 1976.
A claim under this policy may be brought by the University or by a faculty, staff or student member of the University community based on the conduct of any University employee. Complaints based on conduct by students who are not also employees of the University are addressed in the Interim Policy on Discrimination and Discriminatory Conduct by Students in the University Environment, which is administered by the Office of Student Services.
Sexual harassment can be a very serious matter having far-reaching effects on the lives and careers of individuals. Intentionally false accusations can have similar impact. Thus the charge of sexual harassment is not to be taken lightly by a charging party, an accused party, or any member of the University community. A person who knowingly and intentionally files a false complaint under this policy is subject to University discipline.
DEFINITION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT
For the purposes of determining whether a particular act or course of conduct constitutes sexual harassment under this policy, the following definition will be used:
Sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when:
(1) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individuals employment, education, living environment, or participation in a University activity;
(2) submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for or a factor in decisions affecting that individuals employment, education, living environment, or participation in a University activity; or
(3) such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individuals employment or educational performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, offensive, or abusive environment for that individuals employment, education, living environment, or participation in a University activity.
Conduct alleged to be sexual harassment will be evaluated by considering the totality of the particular circumstances, including the nature, frequency, intensity, location, context, and duration of the questioned behavior. Although repeated incidents generally create a stronger claim of sexual harassment, a serious incident, even if isolated, can be sufficient. For example, a single suggestion that academic, other educational, or employment rewards or reprisals will follow the granting or refusal of sexual favors, will constitute sexual harassment and grounds for action under this policy.
This policy addresses intentional conduct. It also addresses conduct which results in negative effects even though such negative effects were unintended. Sexually-related conduct forms the basis of a sexual harassment claim if a reasonable person, in view of all the surrounding circumstances, would consider it sufficiently severe or pervasive to interfere unreasonably with academic, other educational, or employment performance or participation in a University activity or living environment.
Sexual harassment most often occurs when one person has actual or apparent power or authority over another; however, it may also occur between individuals of equal status or rank within the University. Sexual harassment may occur between males and females and between persons of the same gender.
Although sexual harassment as described and prohibited by this policy includes a wide range of behaviors, it does not include certain discriminatory conduct even though that conduct may be otherwise unlawful, offensive, or prohibited by University policy. For example, unequal pay and denial of access to educational programs based on gender are unlawful sex discrimination not addressed by this policy. Also, not all harassment based on gender or sexual orientation may be addressed by this policy, if such conduct is not sexual in nature or sexually motivated. Some conduct which negatively emphasizes gender, gender differences or sexual orientation may violate this policy, but may also be a violation of another University policy. Harassment that is both racist and sexual in nature would be addressed by this policy and possibly by other University policies as well.
Romantic and sexual relationships between supervisor and employee or between faculty or other staff and student are not expressly prohibited by University policy. However, even when both parties have consented to the development of such relationships, they can raise serious concerns about the validity of the consent, conflicts of interest, and unfair treatment of others. Similar concerns can be raised by consensual relationships between senior and junior faculty members.
In 1986 the Universitys Senate Assembly adopted a statement of principle concerning relationships between faculty (including teaching assistants) and students. The University concurs with the Assemblys position that sexual relationships, even mutually consenting ones, are a basic violation of professional ethics and responsibility when the faculty member has any professional responsibility for the students academic performance or professional future.
The Universitys nepotism policy precludes individuals from evaluating the work performance of others with whom they have intimate familial or close personal relationships, or from making hiring, salary or similar financial decisions concerning such persons, without prior written approval. The same principles apply to staff-student or faculty-student relationships in the context of work or academic evaluation. Thus, consensual romantic or sexual relationships between faculty or staff and students also require disclosure to the appropriate administrative supervisor so that arrangements can be made for objective evaluation and decision-making with regard to the student.
Romantic or sexual relationships with students which occur outside of the instructional or supervisory context may also lead to difficulties. The Senate Assembly has concluded, and the University concurs, that the asymmetry of the faculty-student relationship means that any sexual relationship between a faculty member and a student is potentially exploitative and should be avoided. Faculty and staff engaged in such relationships should be sensitive to the constant possibility that they may unexpectedly be placed in a position of responsibility for the students instruction or evaluation.
In the event of a charge of sexual harassment, the University will, in general, be unsympathetic to a defense based upon consent when the facts establish that a professional faculty-student, staff-student, or supervisor-employee power differential existed within the relationship.
RESPONSE AND PROCEDURES
Prevention and Education. The University is committed to preventing and eliminating sexual harassment of students, faculty, and staff. To that end, this policy will be published in pamphlet form and disseminated to the University community. The pamphlets will be included in orientation materials for new students, faculty, and staff and made available in the Affirmative Action Office and other appropriate locations on each campus. In addition, appropriate educational sessions will be conducted by the University on an ongoing basis to (1) inform students, faculty, and staff about identifying sexual harassment and the problems it causes, (2) advise members of the University community about their rights and responsibilities under this policy, and (3) train personnel in the administration of this policy.
Assistance with Sexual Harassment Problems. The Affirmative Action Office is responsible for ensuring and monitoring the Universitys compliance with federal and state nondiscrimination laws. However, a discrimination-free environment is the responsibility of every member of the community. The University can take corrective action only when it becomes aware of problems.
Therefore, the University encourages persons who believe that they have experienced or witnessed sexual harassment to come forward promptly with their inquiries, reports, or complaints and to seek assistance within the University. Individuals also have the right to pursue a legal remedy for sexual harassment in addition to or instead of proceeding under this policy.
Confidential Counseling. Information about or assistance with sexual harassment issues may be obtained from a variety of University resources. Prior to or concurrent with making a report or complaint of sexual harassment, individuals may find it helpful to consult with a counsellor. The following offices can advise and support victims of and witnesses to sexual harassment in a confidential setting. Discussions with representatives of these offices will not be considered official reports to the University and will not, without additional action by the complainant, result in intervention or corrective action.
Counseling Services (available to students on each campus)
Faculty and Staff Assistance Program (available to faculty and staff on each campus)
Lesbian-Gay Male Programs Office (in Ann Arbor but available to students, faculty, and staff from Dearborn and Flint)
Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center (in Ann Arbor but available to students, faculty, and staff from Dearborn and Flint)
Inquiries about Sexual Harassment. Inquiries about sexual harassment and this policy may also be made to the University representatives listed below. Such inquiries will not be acted upon until an informal or formal complaint is made.
Informal Resolution Process. At the complainants option, a sexual harassment report or complaint can be made centrally or locally on the Ann Arbor, Dearborn and Flint campuses. Centrally, informal reports or complaints may be received by representatives of the Affirmative Action Office, the Office of the Ombudsperson (students only), the Office of Student Affairs (students only), Deans Office of the Horace H. Rackham Graduate School (graduate students only), Center for the Education of Women, Department of Public Safety, and appropriate Personnel Office.
At the local level, persons designated to receive informal reports or complaints are any dean, director, department head, and/or their designees. Each School/College or other unit shall be certain that at least one of the persons designated to receive complaints is a female.
The person who receives a sexual harassment report or complaint will advise the complainant about the informal and formal resolution alternatives available under this policy. At the complainants option, the intake person can (1) provide information about sexual harassment and this policy, (2) help the complainant deal directly with the alleged offender, (3) assist with or mediate a resolution of the problem within the unit, and/or (4) help the complainant prepare a written complaint and pursue a formal investigation. Informal resolution measures should be custom-designed to address the particular circumstances. If the complainant wishes, the intake person can, in consultation with a representative of the appropriate Personnel Office and/or the Affirmative Action Office, conduct an informal inquiry into the reported incident and assist in resolving it. The person to whom an informal complaint is brought will not inform the accused of the complainants action or identity without the consent of the complainant.