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Updated 10:00 AM April 4, 2005




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Harold Cruse

Harold Cruse, former director of the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies (CAAS), died March 25 in Sunrise Assisted Living of Ann Arbor. He was 89.
(Photo by John Woodford, News Service)

An influential author, Cruse wrote several books, including "The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual" (1967), "Rebellion or Revolution" (1968) and "Plural but Equal: A Critical Study of Blacks and Minorities and America's Plural Society" (1987). A new edition of "Crisis," which analyzes the ideas of black writers and artists, is expected to be published later this year. He also wrote several plays in the 1950s.

Cruse came to the University in 1968 and taught Afroamerican Studies, often engaging students with his charisma and flair, says Mara Julius, his companion.

"There are some people who learn how to teach, and some people are born to teach. He was born to teach," says Julius, an assistant research scientist emeritus in the Department of Epidemiology. "He was very good with his graduate students. He really cared for them and wanted them to succeed in their studies."

Cruse, an historian, was instrumental in getting CAAS started in 1970, in response to African American students who wanted a richer representation of the Black experience in the University's course offerings. He was acting director of CAAS from 1972-73.

Cruse was born
March 8, 1916, in Petersburg, Va., and then moved to New York with his family. He spent four years in the Army, and was stationed in Italy, North Africa, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

He attended City College in New York after the war, but never graduated.

"Harold was a self-made academic who started writing without any training," says Bradford Perkins, professor emeritus of history. "His books were impressive."

In "Havana Up in Harlem: LeRoi Jones, Harold Cruse and the Making of a Cultural Revolution," author Cynthia Young wrote about Cruse's July 1959 visit to Cuba, where he watched the Rebel Army take over the Cuban government. The trip shaped his ideas about the relationship between First World protest and Third World revolution.

"Consideration of their political and cultural activism lends critical insight into the U.S. Third World Left, a group of African-American, U.S. Latino/a, and U.S. Asian writers, artists and activists who created cultural material and ideological links to the Third World in order to challenge U.S. economic, racial and cultural hierarchies," Young wrote.

Cruse is survived by two half-sisters and a cousin. He will be cremated and a memorial service is tentatively planned for later this month.

Frank Livingstone

Frank Livingstone, professor emeritus and pioneering anthropology researcher, died March 21 in Springfield, Ohio, of complications from Parkinson's disease. He was 76.

Livingstone was born Dec. 8, 1928, in Winchester, Mass., to Guy P. Livingstone and Margery Brown Livingstone.
(Photo courtesy Amy Livingstone)

On Aug. 13, 1960, he married Carol Ludington. She survives him, and lives in Springfield. The couple's only child, Amy, was born July 10, 1961. On Dec.19, 1986, she married Gordon Thompson. Amy is associate professor of history and chair of the department at Wittenberg University.

His father founded his own unfinished furniture business, now operated in Winchester by Frank's elder brother, James Livingstone (Charlene) of Belmont, Mass. His younger brother, Guy P. Livingstone II (Ardith) of Signal Mountain, Tenn., also survives, as well as many nieces, nephews, and great nieces and nephews.

Livingstone was a devoted and doting grandfather to his grandsons, Samuel Thompson and William Thompson.

Livingstone graduated from Winchester High School in 1946. He then studied at Harvard University, where he graduated in 1950 as a math major. As an undergraduate, he was an average student until his junior year, when he took his first anthropology course and realized it would be his lifelong passion.

After two years in the U.S. Army at the Chemical Center in Fort Dix, N.J., Livingstone began graduate work in the Anthropology Department at U-M, earning a master's degree in 1955 and doctoral degree in 1957. He joined the anthropology faculty in 1958 and rose to the rank of full professor.

Livingstone worked in Liberia, West Africa, to test the correlation between sickle cell anemia and malaria. This work played a central role in changing the field of biological anthropology from a static to a vibrant discipline.

Livingstone also contributed to other sub-disciplines of anthropology. Most notable was his work on race, one of anthropology's most central and troubling problems. Recognition of the importance of Livingstone's work extended beyond the walls of academe and earned him the Martin Luther King Award granted by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Livingstone spent his entire graduate and professional career in the anthropology department, serving for a time as head, and adding his own contributions to the numerous honors enjoyed by one of the country's leading centers in the field. He also served as mentor to dozens of graduate students.

Livingstone officially retired from the anthropology department in 1998. The following year he received the Charles R. Darwin Award for Lifetime Achievement from the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. In 2002, a symposium was held in his honor at the annual meeting of that association.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to a personal charity or to the Spuhler Fund in the Department of Anthropology. Named in honor of James N. Spuhler, a friend of Livingstone's for many decades, the fund provides support for graduate students in the field. A memorial will be held April 16 at the Michigan League.

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